Allergic Reactions Related to COVID-19 Vaccinations in Allergic Patients
Excerpt from the Joint Statement by the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO–HNS) and the American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy (AAOA) – December 25, 2020
The recommendations below are based on best knowledge to date but may change at any time, pending new information and further guidance from the CDC or FDA.
- Individuals with common allergies to medications, foods, inhalants, venoms, and latex are no more likely than the general public to have an allergic reaction to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.
- The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should be administered in a healthcare setting where anaphylaxis can be recognized and treated. Vaccination providers should have appropriate medications and equipment—such as epinephrine and equipment for managing an airway. All anaphylactic reactions should be managed immediately with IM epinephrine as the first line treatment.
- All people who receive a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine should be monitored on-site after receiving their dose. People with a history of severe allergic reactions should be monitored for 30 minutes after getting the vaccine. All others should be monitored for 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.
- According to the CDC, if a patient has a severe allergic reaction after getting the first shot, they should not receive the second shot. Additionally, the CDC notes patients who experience a severe allergic reaction should receive a referral for evaluation to possibly determine the component responsible for the reaction.
- The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should not be administered to individuals with a known history of a severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine. The specific vaccine component causing the anaphylaxis has not been identified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the vaccine’s ingredients and has been known to cause anaphylaxis. PEG is used as an inactive ingredient in some drugs. PEG is also used as a bowel prep for colonoscopy procedures and as a laxative.
- Data related to risk in individuals with a history of allergic reactions to other previous vaccinations and/or idiopathic anaphylaxis is very limited and evolving. A clinical decision to administer either of the COVID-19 vaccines should be undertaken by the physician or other provider administering the vaccine using their professional judgment and in consultation with the patient, balancing the benefits and risks associated with taking the vaccine.
- Recommendations are to defer vaccination for 90 days after receiving convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19.
For more information, please visit: https://www.entnet.org/content/allergic-reactions-related-covid-19-vaccinations-allergic-patients